Black holes have a complex shape. Inside, gravity exists in three dimensions. But black holes are also connected to outside particles and magnetic fields that only exist in two dimensions. So how can a black hole exist in both two dimensions and three dimensions at the same time?

- New math helps define and explore the surface and interior of black holes.
- String theory turns objects into systems of numbers that can be studied.
- Holographic duality could help link the standard model and relativity physics for good.

Scientists say there’s a mathematical phenomenon at work here called the “holographic duality theory.” Juan Maldacena, an Argentine theoretical physicist, discovered the concept in 1997, which states that events inside a space with gravity (like a black hole) are mathematically equivalent to gravity-free events on the surface of that space that involve particles.